In Chinese medicine, dysphagia or difficulty swallowing is often associated with disorders of the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, ulceration, narrowing of the esophagus, and dysfunction of the smooth muscle of the esophagus. Dysphagia is more common in older individuals due to factors such as weakness in jaw muscles, loss of teeth, and reduced salivation. It can also be a secondary effect of conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, and cancer. In Chinese medicine, the esophagus is influenced by the Spleen, Stomach, and Liver organ systems, and is considered part of the Spleen and Stomach organ system. Treatment for dysphagia in Chinese medicine may involve addressing any underlying imbalances in these organ systems.