Diagnosis by Observations
Importance of Observations in Diagnosis by Physicians
Observations of a patient's spirits, physical condition, "outlets," complexion, tongue, and fingerprints are important tools for physicians to diagnose diseases and understand the conditions of the five viscera.
Observations of Spirits, Physical Conditions, and "Outlets"
Observations of a patient's spirits, physical condition, and "outlets" can help physicians understand a patient's conditions of energy and blood in the internal regions. The eyes are a key indicator of a person's spirits, and a person in good spirits is easier to treat than a person lacking spirits. The observation of the "outlets," such as the tongue, nose, eyes, lips, and ears, can help physicians understand the conditions of the corresponding viscera.
Observations of Complexion
Observations of a patient's complexion can provide insights into the conditions of the five viscera. A normal complexion is shiny and moist, and a person with a good complexion has excellent energy conditions of the five viscera. A deep color indicates a deep disease, while brightness indicates a superficial disease. A moist appearance indicates the presence of stomach energy, while a withered appearance indicates the decline of stomach energy.
Fingerprint diagnosis can be used for young patients to evaluate the color and density of their prints. A normal fingerprint will appear reddish yellow with a degree of brightness, and a light color points to a deficiency or cold disease, while a purple-red color points to a hot disease. A black color indicates blood coagulations, and a deep color points to a deep disease.
Observation of the tongue, commonly called tongue diagnosis, is an important aspect of diagnosis by observations. It can provide information on the conditions of excess and deficiency of the five viscera and how deeply external pathogenic energies have penetrated into the human body. The body of the tongue and the tongue coating are important indicators, and a normal tongue coating is thin, white, and moist. A pathological coating can indicate various diseases, such as internal cold and dampness or external wind and cold. The thickness of the tongue coating can also provide important information for diagnosis.